Panagiotis Kondylis in English

"Everyone has equal rights to a delusion, since not everyone has the same ability or the same courage in attaining knowledge".

This site is dedicated to making some of Panagiotis (Panajotis) Kondylis's voluminous work available in English. 

Anyone who knows Kondylis's writings well in either German or Greek will appreciate that Kondylis (1943-1998) produced books and articles of unparallelled value in relation to the history of ideas, and in particular the European Enlightenment; general or macro social theory; the theory of knowledge; conservatism and political terminology emanating from Europe including during the 19th century; liberal modernism and mass-democratic "postmodernism"; the theory of war; international affairs; as well as in relation to a number of other more specialised topics.

A (near) complete bibliography is available at:




PLANETARY POLITICS AFTER THE COLD WAR (Planetarische Politik nach dem Kalten Krieg)

as well as the articles:

           "Science, Power and Decision (Wissenschaft, Macht und


"The German "special way (Sonderweg)" and German prospects" 

and the short book consisting of three sets of questions answered in writing, i.e.:

Kondylis's answers to 28 questions put to him in the last years before his premature death.


For a definition of "power", see "Science, Power and Decision", II, p.5ff. (and the translator's notes on the site page: Power and Decision).
To find out the real reasons why Karl Marx was one of the greatest thinkers in the history of the social sciences (it has nothing to do with "class struggle", "capital", "exploitation", "alienation", "communism", etc.), see Answers to 28 questions, pp. 67-69, and, The Political and Man, Chapter II, pp. 195-202 (= Das Politische und der Mensch, S. 105-107).

To find out why Heidegger is often grossly overrated see The Political and Man, Chapter II, pp. 182-191, 198-199, 203, 358; Chapter III, pp. 472-477 (= Das Politische und der Mensch, S. 97-101, 104, 107, 185, 245-246). (See also: 
With regard to Sartre, see loc. cit., pp. 186-190 (= Das Politische und der Mensch, S. 99-100).

For a fascinating discussion of social facts (and both their empirical and ideational/ideological ontic aspects), the heterogony of ends, meaning, etc. in relation to the great sociologists Durkheim and Weber et al. see The Political and Man, Chapter II, pp. 222ff. (= Das Politische und der Mensch, S. 116f.), and as regards sociology's interrelation with history, pp. 235ff. (= S. 123f.).

"Society" is defined by Kondylis in Ch. II, Sec. 3C, pp. 409-413 (= Das Politische und der Mensch, S. 212-214). Ch. II, Sec. 3 in general defines and explains social ontology as it pertains to the social relation, the political (social cohesion and social order) and man (the anthropological).

The spectrum of the social relation and its friend-foe polarity, inter alia, particularly as regards Simmel and von Wiese, feature in Chapter III.

Next, in the event the translator finds the strength and motivation and does not opt to engage in the pleasure of merely being a reader of Kondylis's, and other, works, 

The Political and Man (Das Politische und der Mensch)

will be presented in toto within certainly no less than eight years (as of 30-12-2014; Chapter I was completed on 17-10-2015. Translation of Ch. II commenced 18-11-2015 and was completed on 02-02-2017; Ch. III commenced 27-2-17). This is, for those of us who know, the most important work of macro social theory published since Max Weber's Economy and Society and it is an absolute tour de force in terms of length and scope. One could even argue it is the greatest book ever written (depending of course on what one values in relation to books).

THE POLITICAL AND MAN - PAGES TRANSLATED: 253 (360) of 652 (38.8%) (247 online)

Chapter I and Chapter II are online

Note: Chapter II, Section 3 constitutes a high point (if not the high point) in the history of general social theory!

                      Chapter III Sections 1A, 1B, 2A are now also online

In the more distant future, this site's author would hope to translate or at least would hope to see translated: 

The Enlightenment in the framework of new-times rationalism (Die Aufklärung in Rahmen des neuzeitlichen Rationalismus),

The decline of the bourgeois thought form and life form. The liberal modern era and the mass-democratic postmodern era (Der Niedergang der bürgerlichen Denk- und Lebensform. Die liberale Moderne und die massendemokratische Postmoderne),

Conservatism (Konservativismus), 

Theory of War (Theorie des Krieges),

as well as other works by Kondylis such as:
The new-times critique of metaphysics (Die neuzeitliche Metaphysikkritik),

The Political in the 20th century. From Utopias to Globalisation (Das Politische im 20. Jahrhundert. Von den Utopien zur Globalisierung),

Montesquieu and the Spirit of the Laws
(Montesquieu und der Geist der Gesetze)

Marx and Greek antiquity (Marx und die griechische Antike),

the two articles from Geschichtliche Grundbegriffe (Basic Historical Concepts):
"Reaction, Restoration" (Reaktion, Restauration), and, "Dignity" (Würde),

the article
"Jurisprudence, State of Emergency and Decision. Fundamental remarks on Carl Schmitt's "Political Theology"" (Jurisprudenz, Ausnahmezustand und Entscheidung. Grundsätzliche Bemerkungen zu Carl Schmitts Politische Theologie),

as well as Kondylis's anthologies with their respective introductions: Der Philosoph und der Lust (The philosopher and pleasure), Der Philosoph und die Macht (The philosopher and power);

the articles "Utopia and historical action" (
Utopie und geschichtliches Handeln), "Regarding the intellectual(-spiritual) structure of utopian constructions of the 16th and 17th centuries" (Zur geistigen Struktur der utopischen Konstruktionen des 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts), "The old and the new godhead" («Η παλιά και η νέα θεότητα»), 


Kondylis's essential introduction to, and essay on, Machiavelli,

and introductions to: Chamfort, Lichtenberg, Rivarol and Pavese;

if the vicissitudes of life permit...

[unfortunately, a translation of Kondylis's first book: Die Entstehung der Dialektik. Eine Analyse der geistigen Entwicklung von Hölderlin, Schelling und Hegel bis 1802, cannot be contemplated as a possible translation project given that the above list of works will almost certainly not be translated in toto]

Any enquiries or comments concerning "Panagiotis Kondylis in English" should be directed to:

The translations
and any other text within this website, including within all this website's pages, should not be reproduced in any form whatsoever without the express written permission of their author, C. F., who can be contacted through the email address above.

I note that my main motive in producing the translations is a deep appreciation of the honest attempt at achieving "value-free" (or "axiologically free") knowledge in the social sciences or humanities (i.e. knowledge that is descriptive, explanatory (theoretical) and ethically, not methodologically, non-normative (regarding method: empirical verification (or e.g. reference, in the case of the ideal type) and logical consistency, but nothing more, are sine qua non)) - something little appreciated in institutions of "higher learning" (at least as far as the "social sciences", "philosophy" and the "humanities" are concerned), by and large staffed by people involved, more often than not, at best in sophisticated cultural critique or insightful microanalyses, but alas more commonly, in the reproduction of (moralising) normative ideology, if not complete and utter nonsense (e.g. a "professor of the history and philosophy of science", who is a psychologist and does not, compared to Kondylis, even have a basic working knowledge of the history of philosophy, or the history of science, or even the philosophy of science, is nonetheless an "expert" on "feminism" and "gender stereotypes", etc. etc. etc....). The translations are not "easy-to-read" English texts and obviously require further improvement and editing, however, they do err on the side of faithfulness to the German text, and it is hoped that the English reader will not be dissuaded from developing a genuine interest in Kondylis's thought. It goes without saying that even the best of translations are always poor substitutes for any original text, particularly if we are dealing with a body of work at the peak of human achievement - the translator wants readers to know that the text they are reading is "faithful", but is also a translation

[Paul Gottfried, leaving aside for the most part whether his substantive criticisms of Power and Decision etc. have any validity (they do not, Gottfried, inter alia, misattributes to Kondylis monocausal reductionism when Power and Decision already implies the centrality of the factors or forces (the social relation, the political and man (the anthropological)) in the multi-dimensional (human) social-ontic spectrum expounded in Kondylis's social ontology, as well as misunderstanding the notions of "will", "power", "value freedom" and the operation of a syllogism...), has found the original German text "testing" to read at best: "What renders these particular reflections particularly inaccessible is the ponderous prose; and it is hard to see how the editor could characterize them as stylistically elegant" (Gottfried Paul: "Review of Piccone and Kondylis", TELOSscope, Sunday, August 2, 2009,]    

Anyone who particularly values Thucydides, Machiavelli, and Max Weber (as well as many other remarkable thinkers or "observers of human affairs" - Aristotle, Montaigne, Hobbes, Spinoza, Clausewitz, and Marx readily come to mind*) will probably become very fond of Kondylis's work.

The reading will be (very) difficult, but the gain in knowledge immeasurable.

[*Because almost inevitably most great (and not so great) thinkers in the social sciences, history and philosophy display both varying degrees of empirical and logical-argumentative weaknesses or even serious flaws, as well as all their strengths and insights, or at least while maintaining their value as "negative" polemical points of reference, those I have named are just a small list which could very easily be expanded to include: the great classical historians (Herodotus, Xenophon, Polybius, Sallust, Livy, Tacitus, Appian, Priscus et. al.), the Sophists, Socrates and Plato, La Rochefoucauld, Montesquieu, La Mettrie, Hume, Adam Smith, Adam Ferguson, Kant, Tocqueville, Nietzsche, Pareto, Durkheim, Simmel, Schumpeter, E. H. Carr, K. Mannheim, Raymond Aron, Werner Conze, and many, many others: from Epicurus, Duns Scotus, Occam, Bacon, Galilei, Descartes, Locke, Vico, Rousseau, Chamfort, Lichtenberg and Comte; to Grotius, Pascal, Pufendorf, Diderot, d'Alembert, Holbach, Turgot, de Sade, Herder, Rivarol and Schiller; to Leopold von Ranke, F. Engels, W. Dilthey, Tönnies, Husserl, Bergson, Werner Sombart, G.H. Mead, E. Cassirer, Leopold v. Wiese, Levin Ludwig Schücking, Bernard Groethuysen, Karl Polanyi, Pitirim Sorokin, Morris Ginsberg, Fernand Braudel, T. Parsons; to Arnold Hauser, Pierre Naville, Hans Morgenthau, J. Burnham, Leo Kofler, Cesare Pavese, J. Plamenatz, Geoffrey Elton, Reinhart Koselleck, K. Waltz, Hedley Bull, Michel Vovelle, G. Arrighi, P.M. Kennedy, G. Contogeorgis, J. Mearsheimer and so on and so forth.]

[The great (as a matter of the translator's personal taste, but also (once) acknowledged as "classic" or of extremely '"high" quality and craftsmanship) authors, artists, composers, painters, sculptors, artistic achievements, (social) psychologists, et al., etc. include:
Homer, Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes, Pindar, Sappho, Pheidias, The Parthenon, Horace, Virgil, Ovid, Cicero, Juvenal, The Bible, Hagia Sophia, Byzantine iconography, Kalidasa, Li Bo (Po, Bai), Tu (Du) Fu, Boccaccio, Dante, Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Chartres, Borobudur, Angkor Wat, Michelangelo, Da Vinci, Raphael, Titian, Cervantes, Chaucer, Shakespeare, Milton, El Greco, Rembrandt, Hieronymus Bosch, Velazquez, Monet, Bach, Mozart, Beethoven, Wagner, Verdi, Handel, Rossini, Schubert, Goethe, Dostoyevsky, Tolstoy, Chekhov, Balzac, de Maupassant, Baudelaire, Cavafy, T. S. Eliot, Camus, Yasujiro Ozu, John Ford, Jean Renoir, Kenji Mizoguchi,... Picasso, Stravinsky,... and of course many, many other achievements and many other creators, too many to name and admire...]

Kondylis in historical context:

Kondylis’s oeuvre draws together all the main strands in the social sciences (historical science, sociology, anthropology, the humanities etc.), philosophy and the history of ideas, which contain the elements necessary for someone to engage in absolutely consistent science (as far as the human-social sciences are concerned at a macro or general level, consisting of three main overlapping branches: history, sociology, social ontology (incl. anthropology)). In other words, where (cultural-critical, deconstructivistic, (self-)ironising) “post-modernism” in its various forms draws on aspects of the thought of e.g. [La Mettrie, de Sade,] Nietzsche, Freud, Boas, Marx, Wittgenstein, Heidegger, et al. - apart from, inter alia, reflecting, recycling and reconstructing thought patterns emanating from highly technicised hedonistic-consumeristic (massifying and atomising, levelling and equalising, ideologically more spatial than temporal, also in practice relatively more mobile than static) Western mass democracy (with its extremely intricate division of labour, "taken for granted" access to water, energy, mass production; blurring of public and private spheres, universal suffrage, mass bureaucratisation of the state, corporations, the mass media, and, historically more fluid attitudes to collective identities such race, nation(-state), religion, sex, or "gender", etc., including (individualistic) "self-realisation" and "minority" group "identity politics", non-eurocentric Other worship and dissolution of bourgeois anthropocentrism, at times ideologically "eliminating" Nature (biology) in Culture, and a (mass-democratic) analytical-combinatory thought figure rather than the (bourgeois) synthetic-harmonising thought figure) -, and not infrequently, but not always, correctly acknowledges the relativity of values, the centrality and ubiquity of (relative degrees of ideational, ideological and/or physical) power in human-social relations, and the perspectivity (historicity) of knowledge, but errs in maintaining a relativity of knowledge, notwithstanding its own claims to knowledge and irrefutable empirical and logical criteria, as well as (contradictorily) usually adhering to some kind of normative programme and having certain aesthetic preferences, Kondylis managed to build on the great Western tradition of empirical observation and logical coherence, to the extent it has existed, in order to produce a body of work which essentially brings to a near as humanly possible completed high point or "perfection" what thinkers like Aristotle, Marx and Weber (Thucydides, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Clausewitz et al.), at least in part or albeit imperfectly, sought to achieve with regard to understanding human societies at a macro or general level: description and explanation of what is, without, so to speak, contaminating the description and explanation of reality with an ought. It goes without saying that absolutely consistent knowledge of the Is is politically-polemically at best only partially useful, because human societies and the individuals that comprise them exist per definitionem in various forms of ideological (and usually less frequently, physical) struggle over Ought (as part of the social-cultural-human manifestation of the natural-biological drive (urge or impulse) of self-preservation) - apart from the quantitatively insignificant exceptions, who can also observe human affairs consistently dispassionately. Kondylis's oeuvre therefore constitutes the ideational (ideological) domain of the few.

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